Scientific journal

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Online First Articles

Konagano, E. M. H. – Ferreira, N. R. – Chagas Junior, G. C. A. – Gloria, M. B. A. – Andrade, E. H. A. – do Nascimento, L. D. – Martins, L. H. S. – Lopes, A. S.
Cladosporium cladosporioides starter culture can positively influence flavour and bioactive compounds of fermented and dried cocoa beans from the Amazon biome

Nelson Rosa Ferreira, Gilson Celso Albuquerque Chagas-Junior, Alessandra Santos Lopes, Laboratory of Biotechnological Processes (LABIOTEC), Graduate Program in Food Science and Technology (PPGCTA), Institute of Technology (ITEC), Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Augusto Corrêa St., 01, 66075-110 Belém, Pará, Brazil. E-mail:;;

Received 8 March 2022; 1st revised 22 May 2022; accepted 13 June 2022; published online 22 July 2022.

Summary: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Cladosporium cladosporioides during cocoa fermentation on the physico-chemical characteristics, phenolic compounds, free bioactive amines and volatile compounds. Two fermentation treatments were carried out: a spontaneous, control process and another one with the addition of C. cladosporioides starter culture. The use of this starter culture did not affect significantly the temperature and acidity (p > 0.05) of cocoa throughout fermentation. It led to decreased levels of total phenolic compounds, catechin and epicatechin. In addition, it caused an increase in the levels of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose), an increase in bioactive amines (cadaverine, putrescine, phenylethylamine and spermidine) and an increase in the levels and diversity of volatile compounds (2-phenethylacetate, benzaldehyde and acetophenone, responsible for floral, fruity and candy notes) in fermented and dried cocoa. Multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis) emphasized the differences between the two treatments. Based on these results, the use of C. cladosporioides as a starter culture during cocoa fermentation seems to be promising. However, further studies are needed to ascertain their impact on the sensorial characteristic and acceptance of chocolate.

Keywords: phenylethylamine; spermidine; benzaldehyde

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