Scientific journal

57 2018

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Summary No. 4 / 2018

Thakur, M. – Nanda, V.
Assessment of physico-chemical properties, fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile of bee pollen from India with a multivariate perspective
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 57, 2018, No. 4, s. 328-340

Mamta Thakur, Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Deemed University, Longowal 148106, Punjab, India. E-mail:, tel.: +91 8219831376

Received 1 February 2018; 1st revised 9 April 2018; accepted 14 May 2018; published online 20 September 2018

Summary: For the first time, the bee pollen samples from Northern, North-Western and South-Western regions of India were examined for botanical origin, physico-chemical properties, fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile. The palynological analysis identified six botanical families among which Arecaceae, Apiaceae and Brassicaceae were predominant. The physico-chemical studies found the bee pollen from all floral sources to comply with the framework of international (Brazilian, Argentinean and Swiss) regulations. The surprisingly high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids were disclosed with first-ever detection of eicosatrienoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, heptadecenoic acid, petroselinic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, establishing them as chemical markers of bee pollen from the regions under study. The amino acid analysis verified the bee pollen as a source of high-quality protein as they contained by 11 % more essential amino acids than FAO reference protein. The mineral composition showed exceptionally high levels of iron (243 mg·kg-1), i.e. more than double of FAO recommended iron intake for adults. Principal component analysis showed more than 86 % of variance in first four principal components and strong negative correlation was recorded between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (r = –0.98). Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized all bee pollen samples successfully.

Supplementary data related to this article are attached.

Keywords: bee pollen; composition; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-6 fatty acids; essential amino acids; essential minerals; multivariate analysis

  (pdf, 1.07 Mb, 903x)
  (pdf, 479.95 Kb, 335x)