Scientific journal

62 2023

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Summary No. 3 / 2023

Tobolková, B. – Polovka, M. – Kajdi, F. – Suhaj, M. – Bitterová, M.
A comparative study of quality and colour characteristics of organically and conventionally produced spelt flours by means of UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 62, 2023, No. 3, s. 212-223

Blanka Tobolková, Department of Chemistry and Food Analysis, National Agricultural and Food Centre - Food Research Institute, Priemyselná 4, SK-824 75 Bratislava, Slovakia. Tel.: +421250237049; e-mail:

Original article
Received 26 April 2023; 1st revised 24 May 2023; accepted 30 May 2023; published online 14 June 2023.

Summary: Wholemeal flours prepared from Lajta and ÖKO-10 spelt cultivars grown under organic and conventional agricultural practices in various Slovakian and Hungarian regions were evaluated and statistically compared. Ash, moisture and protein contents, colour and spectral characteristics of CIE L*a*b* colour system calculated from reflectance spectra were monitored. The variation of monitored parameters was the largest for redness (a*), ash, moisture and protein content, whiteness (WI), Z% brightness and tinting (TI) together with browning indexes (BI). All the colour and spectral characteristics were significantly influenced by country or region of origin. Most of the analysed traits showed significant differences (p < 0.05) also between spelt cultivars and agricultural practices. Conventional flours were significantly higher in ash and protein content, darker and more saturated by red and brown colour than their organic counterparts. In comparison to Lajta, ÖKO-10 showed higher (p < 0.05) ash and protein content as well as higher saturation with yellow. Satisfactory discrimination of flours (80.9–89.2 %) was achieved confirming the significant effect of the spelt cultivar, geographical and agricultural factors on flour colour. In most cases, protein content, a*, WI, Z% brightness, yellowness (b*) and yellowness index (YI) were identified as the most important markers for spelt flour differentiation.

Keywords: spelt flour; agricultural practice; geographical origin; colour evaluation; multivariate statistics

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