Scientific journal

62 2023

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Summary No. 4 / 2023

Uğur, H. – Omurtag, G. Z. – Omurtag-Korkmaz, B. İ. – Yaman, M.
Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A levels in nuts and dried fruits in Turkey with evaluation of the estimated daily intake
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 62, 2023, No. 4, s. 314-324

Halime Uğur, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Cevizli Campus, 34862 Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Institute of Health Science, Istanbul Medipol University, Kavacık South Campus, 34810 Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail:

Original article
Received 10 March 2023; 1st revised 8 July 2023; accepted 9 August 2023; published online 15 October 2023

Summary: A total of 140 samples, including nuts and dried fruits sold in the province of Istanbul, Turkey, were examined for the presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which were quantitatively determined and estimated daily intakes (EDI) were calculated. It was found that aflatoxins load was higher in nuts and OTA load was higher in dried fruits. The highest level of aflatoxins was found in a packaged roasted hazelnut sample (8.043 µg·kg-1). The maximum OTA level was detected in an unpackaged raisin sample (0.505 µg·kg-1). The highest EDI values of aflatoxins were seen in hazelnut samples and were determined as 0.025 ng·kg-1 body weight (BW) per day. EDI of OTA was similar between the groups (0.000–0.001 ng·kg-1 BW per day). As a result, the contents detected for both toxins in the products examined were below the legal limits, except for one hazelnut sample (aflatoxin B1: 7.645 µg·kg-1). The EDI values were below the limit values set by the European Food Safety Authority. However, since it is possible for these values to rise to risky levels, the risk of contamination should be minimized by taking the necessary precautions.

Keywords: dried fruits; nuts; aflatoxins; ochratoxin A; high-performance liquid chromatography; estimated daily intake

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